The elevator that transports the men from the bankhead
into the mine.
A compact, tough sapropelic coal that contains spores
and is characterized by a dull, waxy lustre, conchoidal
fracture and massiveness.
Percentage of fixed carbon in coal.
A workman who fastens and unfastens, as required, haulage
cables to trips, and whose signals direct the haulage
engineer operator to stop the trip. The chainrunner underground
functions much as a guard brakeman on a railway.
An excavation from which coal is taken, known also as
a bord or room (in Great Britain, it is known as breast).
The miners representative, chosen by ballot, who checks
the weight of coal recovered in the miner's favour, when
the coal boxes filled by the miners underground are weighed
at the bankhead.
- Chuck, pack, a hardwood block, two or more feet long,
six inches or more square, used as a temporary roof support,
normally in longwall operations and withdrawn as the wall
advances or retreats. In some longwall operations, chocks
are left to ease pressure of the crushed roof and prevent
it spreading to the coal face.
A loosely used term for carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.
The term applied to the natural forces, or planes of division,
causing coal to break up into more or less rectangular
A solid, brittle, stratified, combustible rock-like material
formed by decomposition of plant vegetation that has been
submitted to compaction and induration.
The determination by chemical methods of the amounts of
various components of coal.
Non-combustible material in coal.
Exposed seam of coal.
A coal field with a synclinal basin structure.
Sudden outbursts of coal and rock that occur when stresses
in a coal pillar, left for support in underground workings,
cause the pillar to rupture without warning, sending coal
and rock flying with explosive force.
Coal that softens and binds together when heated and produces
a hard grey cellular coke.
The heat treatment of coal in the absence of air at low
temperatures (450 to 700 degrees C) or high temperatures
(900 to 1200 degrees C).
The grouping of coals according to a particular property
such as degree of metamorphism (Rank), constituent plant
materials (Type), or degree of impurity (Grade). Also,
the grouping of coals according to percentage of volatile
matter, coal caking properties and coking properties.
The coal deposit or bed, in total, in a given geographic
Conversion of coal to gaseous fuel without leaving a combustible
A coal classification based on the degree of impurity,
(i.e. quantity of inorganic material or ash left after
Hydrogeneration or Liquefaction
The conversion of coal into liquid hydrocarbons and related
compounds by treating an oily paste of bituminous coal
with hydrogen gas at elevated temperatures and pressures.
A succession of coal seams in varying thickness and separated
by other sedimentary rocks such as sandstone and/or shale.
As for coal field.
A coal classification based on degree of metamorphism.
Seam or Bed
A stratum (layer) of coal.
A combustible material consisting of the fused coal ash
and fixed carbon of bituminous coal, produced by driving
off the coal's volatile matter.
A bituminous coal containing 80-90% carbon and that is
suitable for the production of coke.
An underground workman in a coal mine - a coal transporting
A coal mine inclusive of surface, plant and underground
A decrease in the volume of sediment as a result of compressive
stress, usually resulting from continued deposits above,
but also from drying and other causes.
The rock strata lying beneath a coal measure.
A crush in which pillars are forced down into the floor,
or up into the roof of a mine.
A narrow opening for ventilation driven through coal or
rock separating two passages.
A weighted tram, to counterbalance a loaded tub and pull
up the empty tub.
A groove excavated in the coal face in preparation for