The end wall at the working extremity of any excavation
in a mine. The place where a miner works in excavating
coal and rock.
A machine used to force ventilation through a mine. It
may be a blow or suction fan, located on the surface or
A displacement of strata in which the coal on one side
of the fossil is pushed above, or below, or aside from
the corresponding coal on the other side.
A geological formation, when found is usually immediately
beneath a coal bed. Its heat resistant and easily processable
qualities make it invaluable for use as a fire brick.
Methane or any explosive gas underground.
A separation of rock or coal across the seam.
The part of carbon remaining when coal is heated in a
closed vessel until the volatile matter is driven off.
It is the non-volatile matter minus the ash.
The bottom of a mine excavation, normally in relation
to the coal deposit, it is the upper surface of the stratum
immediately underlying a coal seam.